Ashot Ghoulian was born on August 19, 1965 in the village of Khndzristan, Askeran region, Nagorno Karabakh.
In 1990, he graduated from the History Department of the Stepanakert Pedagogical Institute, acquiring the profession of historian-lawyer.
Beginning from December 1992, he worked as Reviewer Senior at the Foreign Relations Committee of the NKR first convocation Supreme Soviet, and from September 1993 - Assistant to the Chairman of the NKR Supreme Soviet.
In January 1995, Ashot Ghoulian was appointed Chief of the NKR MFA Diaspora and Bilateral Relations Department and in 1998 - Chief of the MFA Political Department.
On December 15, 1998, Mr. Ghoulian was appointed NKR Deputy Foreign Minister.
In June 2001, when elected a Co-Chairman of Democratic Artsakh Union social-political organization, he left the system of the NKR Ministry of Foreign Affairs.
In October 2002, Mr. Ghoulian was appointed the NKR Minister of Foreign Affairs.
In December 2004, he was appointed the NKR Minister of Education, Culture and Sport.
In January 2005, Ashot Ghoulian was elected Chairman of the Artsakh Democratic Party.
At the June 19, 2005 parliamentary elections, Ashot Ghoulian was elected a Deputy to the NKR National Assembly from the Artsakh Democratic Party.
On June 30, 2005, Mr. Ghoulian was elected Chairman of the NKR National Assembly of the 4th convocation.
On June 10, 2010, Ashot Ghoulian was elected Chairman of the NKR NA of the 5th convocation.
He is a member of Democracy parliamentary faction.
Mr. Ghoulian has the rank of Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary.
He is decorated with Grigor Lusavorich decoration.
Ashot Ghoulian is married and has three children.